Oculomotor Response to Cumulative Subconcussive Head Impacts in US High School Football Players

Importance Repetitive subconcussive head impacts in sports have emerged as a complex public health issue. Most of these head impacts remain asymptomatic yet have the potential to cause insidious neurological deficit if sustained repetitively. Near point of convergence (NPC) values have shown to reflect subclinical neuronal damage; however, the longitudinal pattern of NPC changes in association with subconcussive head impacts remains unclear. Objectives To examine the NPC response to recurring subconcussive head impacts in a single high school football season through a series of repeated measurements. Design, Setting, and Participants This prospective case-series study of US varsity high school football players included baseline measurements of NPC, measurements at pregame and postgame points from 6 in-season games, and postseason follow-up measurements (a total of 14 points). An accelerometer-embedded mouthguard measured head impact frequency and magnitude from all practices and games. During the 6 games, players wore chest-strap heart rate monitors to record heart rate and estimate their excess postexercise oxygen consumption, accounting for possible physical exertion effects on NPC values. Exposures Players participated in practices and games with no restriction. Main Outcomes and Measures Near point of convergence. Results The 12 included players were all boys, with a mean (SD) age of 16.4 (0.5) years. A total of 8009 head impacts, 177 907 g of peak linear acceleration, and 16 123 371 rad/s$^2$ of peak rotational acceleration were recorded from the players in a single football season. There was a significant increase in NPC over time until the middle of the season (mean [SD] NPC: baseline, 5.25 [1.49] cm; pregame 3, 6.42 [1.93] cm; P = .01), which was significantly associated with subconcussive head impact frequency and magnitude (0.02 cm per 100 g of peak linear acceleration [SE, 0.0108; 95% CI, 0.0436-0.004]; P = .01; 0.023 cm per 10 000 rad/s2 of peak rotational acceleration [SE, 0.009; 95% CI, 0.041-0.0105]; P = .02). However, NPC values began to normalize toward baseline level from midseason (mean [SD] NPC: baseline, 5.25 [1.49] cm; pregame 6, 5.75 [2.23] cm; P = .32), as supported by a significant quadratic trend (β [SE], −0.002 [0.001] cm/d; P = .003), while participants continued to incur subconcussive head impacts. Conclusions and Relevance This longitudinal case series study suggests that NPC can be perturbed over the long term by subconcussive head impacts but may normalize over time. The oculomotor system may have an adaptational capacity to subclinical head impacts, yet the mechanism for such remains an open question and warrants further investigation.

Publication Date:
Dec 20 2018
Date Submitted:
Jun 21 2019
JAMA Ophthalmology

 Record created 2019-06-21, last modified 2019-08-06

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