Chronic stress produces differential dendritic remodeling of pyramidal neurons in medial prefrontal cortex of male and female rats. In males, this dendritic remodeling is reversible. However, the timeline of recovery, as well as the potential for reversibility in females, is unknown. Here, we examined dendritic recovery of pyramidal neurons in layer II–II of prelimbic cortex in male and female rats following chronic restraint stress (3 h/day for 10 days). Dendritic morphology and spine density were analyzed immediately following the cessation of stress, or following a 7 or 10 day recovery period. Chronic stress produced apical dendritic retraction in males, which was coupled with a decrease in the density of stubby spine on apical dendrites. Further, following a 10-day recovery period, the morphology of neurons from stressed rats resembled that of unstressed rats. Male rats given a 7 day recovery period had apical dendritic outgrowth compared to unstressed rats. Immediately after cessation of stress, females showed only minimal dendritic remodeling. The morphology of neurons in stressed females resembled those of unstressed rats following only 7 days of recovery, at which time there was also a significant increase in stubby spine density. Males and females also showed different changes in baseline corticosterone concentrations during recovery. These findings not only indicate that dendritic remodeling in prelimbic cortex following chronic stress is different between males and females, but also suggest chronic stress induces differential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in males and females. These differences may have important implications for responses to subsequent stressors.