Effects of varying the 6-position oxidation state of hexopyranoses: a systematic comparative computational analysis of 48 monosaccharide stereoisomers

Knowledge of multi-dimensional carbohydrate structure is essential when delineating structure-function relationships in the development of analytical techniques such as ion mobility-mass spectrometry and of carbohydrate-based therapeutics, as well as in rationally modifying the chemical and physical properties of drugs and materials based on sugars. Although monosaccharides are conventionally presumed to adopt the canonical $^4$C$_1$ chair conformation, it is not well known how altering the substituent identity around the pyranose ring affects the favored conformational state. This work provides a comprehensive and systematic computational comparison of all eight aldohexose isomers in the gas phase with reduction and oxidation at the C-6 position using density functional theory (M05-2X/cc-pVTZ(-f)//B3LYP/6-31G**) to determine the conformational and anomeric preference for each sugar in the gas phase. All 6-deoxyhexose and aldohexose isomers favored the $^4$C$_1$ chair conformation, while oxidation at C-6 showed a shift in equilibrium to favor the $^1$C$_4$ chair for β-alluronic acid, β-guluronic acid, and β-iduronic acid. The anomeric preference was found to be significantly affected by a remote change in oxidation state, with the alternate anomer favored for several isomers. These findings provide a fundamental platform to empirically test steric and electronic effects of pyranose substituents, with the goal of formulating straightforward rules that govern carbohydrate reactivity and drive quicker, more efficient syntheses. Graphical abstract A systematic comparative conformational analysis of all eight aldohexose isomers using DFT methods (M05-2X/cc-pVTZ(-f)) reveals changes in anomeric and ring conformational preference upon reduction or oxidation at the C-6 position for several sugars.

Publication Date:
Jun 27 2017
Date Submitted:
Nov 21 2018
Journal of Molecular Modeling
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 Record created 2018-11-21, last modified 2019-04-03

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