Li in Open Clusters: Cool Dwarfs in the Young, Subsolar-metallicity Cluster M35 (NGC 2168)

Hydra spectra of 85 G-K dwarfs in the young cluster, M35, near the Li 6708 Angstrom line region are analyzed. From velocities and Gaia astrometry, 78 are likely single-star members which, combined with previous work, produces 108 members with T_eff ranging from 6150 to 4000 K as defined by multicolor, broad-band photometry, E(B-V ) = 0.20 and [Fe/H] = -0.15, though there are indications the metallicity may be closer to solar. A(Li) follows a well-delineated decline from 3.15 for the hottest stars to upper limits <= 1.0 among the coolest dwarfs. Contrary to earlier work, M35 includes single stars at systematically higher A(Li) than the mean cluster relation. This subset exhibits higher V_ROT than the more Li-depleted sample and, from photometric rotation periods, is dominated by stars classed as convective (C); all others are interface (I) stars. The cool, high-Li rapid rotators are consistent with models that consider simultaneously rapid rotation and radius inflation; rapid rotators hotter than the sun exhibit excess Li depletion, as predicted by the models. The A(Li) distribution with color and rotation period, when compared to the Hyades/Praesepe and the Pleiades, is consistent with gyrochronological analysis placing M35's age between the older M34 and younger Pleiades. However, the Pleiades display a more excessive range in A(Li) and rotation period than M35 on the low-Li, slow-rotation side of the distribution, with supposedly younger stars at a given T_eff in the Pleiades spinning slower, with A(Li) reduced by more than a factor of four compared to M35.

Publication Date:
June 3 2018
Date Submitted:
Jul 01 2019
The Astronomical Journal
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 Record created 2019-07-01, last modified 2019-07-02

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